Implementing The Training Program - Part 4
- on the job training
- Apprenticeship training
- Informal learning
- Job instructional training.
- Programmed Learning
- Behavior Modeling
- Audiovisual based training
- Vestibule training
- Electronic performance support system
- Video conferencing
- Computer based training
in this article we will continue our talking about Implementing The Training Program :
Simulated Learning and Gaming
“Simulated learning” means different things to different people. A survey asked training professionals what experiences qualified as simulated learning experiences. The percentages of trainers choosing each experience were: Virtual reality-type games, 19%; Step-by-step animated guide, 8%; Scenarios with questions and decision trees
overlaying animation, 19%; Online role-play with photos and videos, 14%; Software training including screenshots with interactive requests, 35%; and Other, 6%.
Virtual reality puts the trainee in an artificial three-dimensional environment that simulates events and situations experienced on the job.81 Sensory devices transmit how the trainee is responding to the computer, and the trainee “sees, feels and hears”
what is going on, assisted by special glasses.82 Facebook’s recent purchase of virtual reality glasses maker Oculus VR Inc. highlights virtual reality’s growing potential.
Employers also increasingly use computerized simulations (sometimes called interactive learning) to inject realism into their training. Orlando-based Environmental Tectonics Corporation created an Advanced Disaster Management simulation for emergency medical response trainees. One simulated scenario involves a plane crash. So realistic that it’s “unsettling,” trainees including firefighters and airport officials respond to the simulated crash’s sights and sounds via pointing devices and radios.
Cisco embedded the learning required to train thousands of Cisco trainees for Cisco certification exams within a video game–like program that includes music, graphics, and sound effects.85 A Novartis pharmaceuticals division runs about 80 or so clinical trials per year, and must be sure each trial team is trained for this. Novartis uses
a custom-made simulation*.
For example, the simulation shows trainees “how their decisions affected the quality of the trial and whether their decision saved time or added time to the process.” The Cheesecake Factory uses a simulation that shows employees how to build the “perfect hamburger.”
Training simulations are expensive to create, but for large companies the cost per employee is usually reasonable. In general, interactive and simulated technologies reduce learning time by an average of 50%.88 Other advantages include mastery of learning (if the trainee doesn’t learn it, he or she generally can’t move on to the next step), increased retention, and increased trainee motivation (resulting from responsive feedback). Specialist multimedia software houses such as Graphic Media of Portland, Oregon, produce much of the content for these programs. They produce both custom titles and generic programs such as a $999 package for teaching workplace safety.
Lifelong and Literacy Training Techniques
Lifelong learning means providing employees with continuing learning experiences over their tenure with the firm, with the aim of ensuring they have the opportunity to learn the skills they need to do their jobs and to expand their horizons.
Lifelong learning may thus range from basic remedial skills (for instance, English as a second language) to college. For example, one senior waiter at the Rhapsody restaurant in Chicago received his undergraduate degree and began work toward a master of social work using the lifelong learning account (LiLA) program his employer offers.
Somewhat similar to 401(k) plans, LiLA plans accept employer and employee contributions (without the tax advantages of 401(k) plans), and the employee can use these funds to better himself or herself.
liTeracy Training By one estimate, about 39 million people in the United States have learning disabilities. Yet today’s emphasis on teamwork and quality requires that employees read, write, and understand numbers.
Employers often turn to private firms like Education Management Corporation to provide the requisite education. Another simple approach is to have supervisors teach basic skills by giving employees writing and speaking exercises. For example, if an employee needs to use a manual to find out how to change a part, teach that person how to use the index to locate the relevant section. Some call in teachers from a local high school.
Teamwork does not always come naturally. Companies devote many hours to training new employees to listen to each other and to cooperate. For example, a Baltimore Coca-Cola plant suffered from high turnover and absenteeism.
The new plant manager decided to address these problems by reorganizing around teams. He then used team training to support and improve team functioning.
Team training focused on technical, interpersonal, and team management issues. In terms of technical training, for instance, management encouraged team employees to learn each other’s jobs, to encourage flexible team assignments.
Cross training means training employees to do different tasks or jobs than their own; doing so facilitates flexibility
and job rotation, as when you expect team members to occasionally share jobs. Interpersonal problems often undermine teamwork.
Team training here therefore included interpersonal skills training such as in listening, handling conflict, and
negotiating.99 Effective teams also require team management skills, for instance, in problem-solving, meetings management, consensus decision making, and team leadership, and the teams received such training as well.
Many employers use team training to build stronger management teams. For example, some use outdoor “adventure” training such as Outward Bound programs to build teamwork. This usually involves taking a firm’s management team out into rugged, mountainous terrain
The aim is to foster trust and cooperation among trainees. One chief financial officer for a bank helped organize a retreat for 73 of his firm’s financial employees. As he said, “They are very individualistic in their approach to their work…. What I have been trying to do is get them to see the power of acting more like a team.”