Implementing The Training Program - Part 1
Implementing The Training Program : in this subject we will discuss many points in a multiple articles as follow :
- on the job training
- Apprenticeship training
- Informal learning
- Job instructional training
- Programmed learning
- Behavior modeling
- Audiovisual based training
- Vestibule training
- Electronic performance support systems (EPSS)
- Computer-based training (CBT)
- Simulated learning & gaming
- Lifelong & literacy training
- Team training
- Internet based training
- Virtual classroom
On-the-Job Training (OJT) :
Training a person to learn a job while working on it. On-the-job training (OJT) means having a person learn a job by actually doing it.
Every employee, from mail-room clerk to CEO, should get on-the-job training when he or she joins a firm. In many firms, OJT is the only training available.
Types of on-The-job Training :
The most familiar on-the-job training is the coaching or understudy method. Here, an experienced worker or the trainee’s supervisor trains the employee.
This may involve simply observing the supervisor, or (preferably) having the supervisor or job expert show the new employee the ropes, step by step. On-the-job training is part of multifaceted training at Men’s Wearhouse, which combines on-the-job training with comprehensive initiation programs and continuing-education seminars. Every manager is accountable for developing his or her subordinates.
Job rotation, in which an employee (usually a management trainee) moves from job to job at planned intervals, is another OJT technique. Special assignments similarly give lower-level executives firsthand experience in working on actual problems.
Do not take the on-the-job training effort for granted. Instead, plan out and structure the OJT experience. Train the trainers themselves (often the employees’ supervisors), and provide training materials.
They should know, for instance, how to motivate learners. Because low expectations may translate into poor trainee performance, supervisor/trainers should emphasize their high expectations.
Many firms use “peer training” for OJT. For example, some adopt “peer to peer development.” The employer selects several employees who spend several days per week over several months learning what the technology or change will entail, and then spread the new skills and values to their colleagues back on the job.
Others use employee teams to analyze jobs and prepare training materials. They reportedly conduct task analyses more quickly and effectively than do training experts.
steps to help ensure OJT success :
Apprenticeship training is a process by which people become skilled workers, usually through a combination of formal learning and long-term on-the-job training, often under the tutelage of a master crafts-person. When steelmaker Dofasco (now part of ArcelorMittal) discovered that many of its employees would be retiring within 5 to
10 years, it decided to revive its apprenticeship training. New recruits spend about months in an internal apprenticeship training program, learning various jobs under the tutelage of experienced employees.
Surveys estimate that as much as 80% of what employees learn on the job they learn through informal means, including performing their jobs while interacting every day with their colleagues.
Employers can facilitate informal learning. For example, one Siemens plant places tools in cafeteria areas to take advantage of the work-related discussions taking place. Even installing whiteboards with markers can facilitate informal learning.
Sun Microsystems implemented an informal online learning tool it called Sun Learning exchange. This evolved into a platform containing more than 5,000 informal learning items/suggestions addressing topics ranging from sales to technical support.
Cheesecake Factory uses VideoCafé, a YouTube-type platform, to let employees “upload and share video snippets on job-related topics, including customer greetings and food preparation.
Job Instruction Training
Many jobs (or parts of jobs) consist of a sequence of steps best learned step-by-step. Such step-by-step training is called job instruction training (JIT).
First, list the job’s required steps (let’s say for using a mechanical paper cutter) each in its proper sequence. Then list a corresponding “key point” (if any) beside each step. The steps in such a job instruction training sheet show trainees what to do, and the key points show how it’s to be done—and why, as follows: